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How to Price a Product – Pricing Guide

Pricing is a procedure to determine how much the company will receive in exchange for its specific product or service. Intelligent and correct pricing is one of the most important elements of any successful business venture.

If your price is too high demand will reduce and you may price yourself out of the market. If the price is set too low, your sales volume may not generate enough revenue to cover the costs associated with your business. So the price of the product must cover costs and profits.

In starting a business, regardless of whether it’s small or large, you must carefully consider your pricing strategy before you start. Established businesses can improve their profitability through regular pricing reviews. The most important thing about pricing is to know the product’s cost price.

  • The cost of your product or service is the amount you spend to produce it
  • The price is your financial reward for providing the product or service
  • The value is what your customer believes the product or service is worth to them

Different Cost Factors in Pricing

You will need to calculate first the cost price of your product to make a profit. Working out the accurate cost price of your product is the most essential part of pricing. Generally, every cost can be divided under these two terms. One is the fixed cost and another is the variable cost.

Fixed costs are expenses that have to be paid by a company, independent of any business activity. Such as rent, leases, salaries, etc. variable costs are those that rise as your sales increase, such as additional raw materials, extra labor, utilities, transport, etc.

Different Pricing Strategies in Business

1. Cost-Plus Pricing

Cost-plus pricing is a very popular method in the manufacturing industry. Under this approach, you add together the direct material cost, direct labor cost, and overhead costs for a product, and add to it a markup percentage (to create a profit margin) in order to derive the price of the product.

Cost of Materials + Labour Cost + Overhead Cost = Total Cost + Desired profit (30%) = Product sell price.

It is quite an easy process of product pricing, though you should define the overhead allocation method in order to be consistent in calculating the prices of multiple products.

2. Value-Based Pricing 

This focuses on the price you believe customers are willing to pay, based on the benefits your business offers them. Value-based pricing depends on the strength of the benefits you can prove you offer to customers.

You will need to know your market well to set a value-based price. By contrast, cost-plus pricing is based on the amount of money it takes to produce the product. Furthermore, companies that offer unique or highly valuable features or services can take advantage of value-based pricing.

3. Demand Pricing 

Demand pricing is generally fixed by the optimum combination of volume and profit. Products generally sold through channels at different prices–retailers, discount chains, wholesalers, dealers; are examples of goods whose price is determined by demand.

When a wholesaler or distributor buys the product in large quantities, he/she gets it at a lower unit price. But when a retailer pays more per unit quantity as he/she is purchasing in small quantities.

4. Competitive Pricing

Setting the price of a product or service based on what the competition is charging. A competitive pricing strategy is used more often by businesses selling similar products since services can vary from business to business while the attributes of a product remain similar.

To use competitive pricing effectively, know the prices each competitor has already established. You can go in three ways below the competition, at the competition, or above the competition.

5. Markup Pricing 

Markup refers to the value that manufacturers, wholesalers, and retailers add to the cost price of a product. The value added is called the markup. The amount to be marked up is decided at the discretion of the company.

Basically, this approach sets prices that cover the cost of production and provide enough profit margin to the firm to earn its target rate of return.

6. Skimming Pricing 

If you have a unique product or service, you can sell it at a high price. This is known as skimming – but you need to be sure that what you are selling is unique. As the demand of the first customers is satisfied, the firm lowers the price to attract another, more price-sensitive segment.

Skimming is useful when there are enough prospective customers willing to buy the product at a high price and the high price does not attract competitors.

Pricing For Different Product Life Cycles

At different stages of your product or service life cycle, you may change your pricing strategy according to your business needs. These are three normal variations that are generally used in pricing in different stages.

New Launch

  • Low price strategy – used to encourage trial of your product or service. As well as repurchase on a regular basis.
  • High price strategy – used to generate profits to cover launch costs. A product or service may have a unique point of difference.

Growth Stage

  • Low price strategy – used the short term to stop new competitors from entering the market.
  • High price strategy – used to grow profits.

Decline/ Maturity Stage

  • Low-price strategy – used to generate enough revenue to cover costs.
  • High-price strategy – used to maximize revenue in order to fund new projects.

Frequently Asked Questions

How do I determine the optimal markup percentage?

Markup price depends on a wide range of factors. It includes industry standards, desired profit margins, and competition. A common rule of thumb is to aim for a 50-60% markup.

What is value-based pricing, and how do I implement it?

Value-based pricing involves setting prices is generally based on the perceived value to customers. You must understand customer needs, conduct surveys, and position your product accordingly.

How can I effectively communicate price increases to customers?

Experts asuggest to communicate the reasons for the increase to your existing and prospective customers. You must emphasize the value they will receive, and provide notice before increase of price.

Can I change prices frequently?

Dynamic pricing can be effective in some occasions. However, frequent changes may confuse customers. You need to consider dynamic pricing for specific products or situations.

How do I balance price and quality?

Consider your target market’s preferences. Higher prices may convey premium quality, while lower prices may attract cost-conscious buyers.

Should I offer discounts or promotions?

Discounts can drive sales, but use them strategically. Avoid excessive discounts that devalue your product.

How do I set prices for subscription-based services?

Consider customer lifetime value, competitive pricing, and the perceived value of your subscription offering.

How often should I review and adjust prices?

There is no strict time schedule in making decisions on price change. It is advisable to regularly monitor market conditions, customer feedback, and financial performance to determine when adjustments are needed.

Is psychological pricing always effective?

Yes, psychological pricing can influence customer’s perception. You are advised to focus on overall value and transparency to build long-term customer trust.

It is amatter of fact that prices can seldom be fixed for long. Your costs, customers, and competitors will surely change in the coming future.  Hence, it is essential  to shift your prices to keep up with the market. Pricing is a crucial business element rhat must be among the top priorities of a startup owner. It is advisable to keep a close watch on what’s going on in the market and take feedback from your customers regularly to make sure your pricing remains optimal.