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How To Start A Tuberose Farming Business – Complete Guide

Tuberose is commonly popular as Rajanigandha. It is known for its mesmerizing fragrance and elegant blooms. If you have a passion for farming, starting a tuberose farming can be a fulfilling and potentially lucrative venture. From selecting the right location to marketing your blooms, here is a comprehensive guide to starting a tuberose farming business.

The scientific name of tuberose is Polianthes tuberosa. It belongs to the Amaryllidaceae family. It is a half-hardy, perennial, bulbous plant. Bulbs come with scales and leaf bases and the stem remains concealed within scales. Roots are mainly adventitious and shallow. Additionally, flowers have a funnel-shaped perianth and are fragrant, waxy white, and about 25 mm long.

Both tropical and sub-tropical countries grow this flower. South Africa, North Carolina, the USA, and India are the major growers of tuberose. In India, states like Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra, and West Bengal grow the flower commercially.

Is Tuberose Farming Profitable?

pic of tuberose

Generally, tuberose cultivation is more expensive than the major competing crops. However, the return is also higher than the competing crops. Additionally, the flower has great economic potential for the cut flower trade as well as for the essential oil industry.

Flowers are essential items for making artistic garlands, floral ornaments, bouquets, and buttonholes. The long flower spikes are excellent as cut flowers for table decoration. It is also a popular cut flower, not only for use in arrangements but also for individual florets that can provide fragrance to bouquets and boutonnieres.

The flowers emit a delightful fragrance. Therefore, flowers are the source of tuberose oil. The flowers contain about 0.1% oil. It is used in high-value perfumes and cosmetic products.

Things To Consider in Tuberose Farming Business

The primary requirement is vacant land. You must have a sufficient area of land for a tuberose farming business.

Determine whether you want to grow the flowers in a greenhouse or open sky conditions. Generally, the major cost includes the hiring of labor and procuring agricultural inputs. These costs depend on the area of cultivation. If you are starting a large scale, you must have the arrangement to preserve the flowers.

It is important to have a clear marketing plan for the business.

Best Varieties for Tuberose Farming

Broadly, tuberose comes in four different varieties. These are single, semi-double, double, and variegated. Find here some of the most popular varieties under every segment.

a) Single Variety

In this segment, the flowers come with one whorl of the corolla. These are highly scented. This type of flower is popular for concrete extraction. You can expect .08 to .11% oil. Loose flowers are used for making floral ornaments. Some of the most popular varieties are single, Kalyani Single, Shringar, Prajwal, Rajat Rekha, Hyderabad Single, and Calcutta Single.

b) Semi-double

It bears two to three whorls of petals. Additionally, you can use the flowers both for concrete extraction as well as cut flowers.

c) Double

This group comprises varieties with more than three whorls. You can use the flowers mainly as cut flowers and for bouquet purposes. The main varieties are Double, Kalyani Double, Swarn Rekha, Hyderabad Double, Calcutta Double, Vaibhav & Suvasini.

d) Variegated

Rajat Rekha: It falls under a single flowered type with a silvery-white streak along the middle of the leaf blade. You can get 0.089% oil concentration in this flower.

Swarna Rekha: It comes as the double-flowered type with golden yellow streaks along the margins of the leaf. Additionally, you can expect to concentrate content up to 0.062%.Shringar

Shringar: This variety comes as a cross between ‘Single x Double’. It bears a single type of flower on sturdy spikes. It is resistant to Meloidogyne incognita nematode. Loose flowers are ideal for making the garland. On the other hand, you can use spikes as cut flowers. Both the farmers and perfumery industries prefer this variety.

Suvasini: Basically, it is a multi-whorled variety. Additionally, it comes as the cross between ‘Single’ x ‘Double’. The flowers are pure white, bold, and big. Spikes are best suited as cut flowers. Suvasini recorded 25% more yield than cv.

Prajwal: This hybrid variety bears single-type flowers on tall stiff spikes. It comes from the cross ‘Shringar’ x ‘Mexican Single’. The flower buds are slightly pinkish while the flowers are white. It yields 20% more loose flowers than ‘Shringar’.

Vaibhav: This hybrid variety bears semi-double flowers on medium spikes. It comes from the cross ‘Mexican Single’ x IIHR – 2. The flower buds are greenish in color in contrast to pinkish buds in ‘Suvasini’ and ‘Local Double’. It yields 50% higher compared to ‘Suvasini’. It is the perfect choice for cut flower purposes.

Agroclimatic Condition For Tuberose Cultivation

The plant is tropical to semi-tropical. It needs warmth, sunshine, high relative humidity, well-drained soil, and even moisture. The commercial cultivation of tuberose is mainly confined to warm, humid areas with an average temperature ranging between 18 to 32° C. The ideal temperature for plant growth ranges between 26 and 30° C. The tuberose needs a long growing period to blossom in early to late fall.

Suitable Soil For Tuberose Farming

Successfully, you can grow the plant in a wide range of soils, even in soils affected by acidity or alkalinity to some extent. The plant is very sensitive to waterlogging. It damages the root system and affects plant growth.

Read: Is Soil Testing Important In Agriculture?

Loam and sandy loam soil having a pH range of 6.5 to 7.5 with proper aeration and drainage are considered best for tuberose cultivation. The soil must have rich organic matter and retain sufficient moisture for proper growth.

6 Steps to Cultivate Commercial Tuberoses/ Rajnigandha

1. Conduct Market Research

Before diving into tuberose farming, conduct thorough market research to understand the demand for tuberose flowers in your region and beyond. Identify potential buyers, such as florists, wholesalers, event planners, and perfumeries, and assess market trends, pricing, and competition.

2. Choose the Right Location

Select a suitable location for your tuberose farm with optimal growing conditions. Tuberose thrives in warm, tropical climates with well-drained soil and plenty of sunlight. Consider factors such as soil quality, climate patterns, water availability, and proximity to transportation networks for distribution.

3. Obtain Tuberose Bulbs

Source high-quality tuberose bulbs from reputable suppliers or nurseries to kickstart your farming venture. Choose disease-resistant varieties suited to your climate and soil conditions, and ensure the bulbs are healthy and disease-free before planting.

Read: How to Start a Tree Farm Business

4. Land Preparation and Spacing

Deep plowing is a must for the right soil preparation. Additionally, you can apply well-rotten cow dung or farmyard manure, at the rate of 50 tons per hectare. You can plant the bulbs at a spacing of 30×20 cm or 20×20 cm at a depth of 4-6 cm. For an acre area, it requires 40,000-50,000 bulbs for the planting of tuberose.

5. Propagation

Tuberose propagates from bulbs. In general, bulbs having a diameter between 1.5 and 2.5 cm are suitable for planting. Additionally, you will need to arrange about 1.25-1.5 lakh bulbs (800-900 kg) for planting one hectare of land.

6. Nutrient Management

Soil testing is a must before the plantation. According to the report, you will need to plan for nutrient management. Generally, you can apply 20 tonnes FYM + 100 kg N + 50 kg P2Os + 50 kg K20.

7. Irrigation

Tuberose requires an adequate moisture supply for the luxurious growth of the plant. After rains, you must maintain proper frequencies of irrigation to keep the soil moist.

8. Weed Control

You must control the weeds on the farm. You can do the weeding after a fortnight, especially in the initial stage of bulb sprouting and the growth of plants. Hand weeding is eco-friendly but extensive. For chemical control, you can apply Atrazine.

9. Harvesting and Yield

Each spike produces 16-20 florets out of this terminal 3-4 pairs of florets are very small and of no use. After the harvesting of flowers, flowers are placed in the shade in a wet cotton cloth or a gunny bag cloth after the harvest of flowers the spike should be cut off.

Harvesting can be done 3-4 months after planting tuberose starts flowering. Summer and rainy seasons are peak periods. Bulb once planted gives a commercial yield of up to 3 years. Generally, you can expect 6000 to 10000 kg of flowers from the first year. And from the second year, you can harvest 20 tonnes/ha of bulbs from commercial tuberose cultivation.

10. Market and Sell Your Tuberose Blooms

Develop a marketing strategy to promote and sell your tuberose blooms to potential buyers. Utilize various channels such as local flower markets, farmers’ markets, florists, online marketplaces, and direct sales to customers. Consider offering bulk discounts, subscription services, or specialty arrangements to attract customers and differentiate your offerings.

11. Build Relationships and Networking

Build relationships with potential buyers, florists, event planners, and perfumers to expand your market reach and establish a reliable customer base. Attend industry events, networking gatherings, and trade shows to showcase your tuberose blooms and connect with industry professionals.

Read: Medicinal Herbs Farming Business Ideas

Frequently Asked Questions

How much land do I need to start a tuberose farming business?

The amount of land required for a tuberose farming business depends on factors such as the scale of your operation, desired yield, and available resources. Generally, tuberose can be grown on small plots of land for personal or local sales, while larger commercial operations may require several acres of land to meet market demand.

What are the primary factors influencing tuberose cultivation success?

The success of tuberose cultivation is influenced by factors such as climate, soil quality, water availability, sunlight exposure, pest and disease management, and proper care and maintenance practices. It’s essential to choose a suitable location with optimal growing conditions and implement effective farming techniques to ensure healthy plant growth and blooming.

How long does it take for tuberose flowers to bloom after planting?

Tuberose flowers typically bloom approximately 90 to 120 days after planting, depending on factors such as variety, climate, and growing conditions. It’s essential to monitor the growth and development of tuberose plants and provide appropriate care and maintenance to promote blooming and ensure the best quality flowers.

What are the main pests and diseases that affect tuberose cultivation, and how can they be managed?

Common pests and diseases that affect tuberose cultivation include aphids, thrips, spider mites, fungal diseases (such as botrytis and powdery mildew), and viral diseases. Implement integrated pest management practices, including cultural controls, biological controls, and judicious use of pesticides, to manage pest and disease outbreaks effectively while minimizing environmental impact.

How do I market and sell tuberose blooms effectively?

To market and sell tuberose blooms effectively, identify potential buyers such as florists, event planners, wholesalers, and individual customers. Develop a marketing strategy that utilizes various channels such as local flower markets, farmers’ markets, online platforms, and direct sales to reach your target audience. Highlight the unique fragrance and beauty of tuberose blooms and differentiate your offerings to attract customers.

What are the potential challenges in tuberose farming?

Like any agricultural venture, tuberose farming also presents challenges such as market fluctuations, unpredictable weather patterns, pest and disease pressures, and labor-intensive cultivation practices. Success in tuberose farming requires careful planning, ongoing learning, and adaptability to overcome challenges and maximize profitability.

Can tuberose be grown in containers or small spaces?

Yes, tuberose can be grown in containers or small spaces, making it suitable for urban or backyard gardening. Choose dwarf varieties or smaller cultivars that are well-suited to container growing and provide adequate sunlight, water, and nutrients for healthy plant growth. Container-grown tuberose plants may require regular fertilization and repotting as they grow to ensure optimal blooming.