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How to Start Vermicompost Fertilizer Production Business

    Vermicompost organic fertilizer production has now become a major component of agri-business models across the world with a very low initial investment. Vermicompost is the product or process of composting utilizing various species of worms to create a mixture of decomposing vegetable or food waste, bedding materials, and vermicast.

    An aspiring entrepreneur having knowledge about the manufacturing process can initiate a vermicompost organic fertilizer production business. The unit can be established with moderate capital investment on a small scale in their own backyard also.

    Rural areas with a predominance of agriculture, suburbs of cities, and semi-urban villages are considered ideal locations for setting up vermicompost units on a larger scale from the viewpoint of availability of raw material (cow dung) and marketing of the produce.

    Based on the high-end trend of vermicompost technology it is getting increasingly popular among local entrepreneurs for the reason that it is considered profitable and maximizes the yield.

    What is Vermicompost Organic fertilizer Production?

    Vermicompost is essentially organic manure. This type of biofertilizer is prepared by mixing up earthworms on biological and plant residues. This organically prepared fertilizer is rich in micronutrients like N, P, K, and many others that are essential for the growth of plants.

    Vermicompost Fertilizer Production Business Plan

    The vermicompost contains a higher percentage (nearly twofold) of both macro and micronutrients than the garden compost. The product gets matured in a period of 45-60 days depending upon the type of waste, earthworm population, and environmental factors. There is a 5 to 6 possible cycles in a year.

    Raw Materials Required For Vermicompost Production

    Several decomposable organic wastes are normally used as composting materials. It includes animal excreta, kitchen waste, farm residues, forest litter, etc. In general, animal dung mostly cows dung, and dried chopped crop residues are the key raw materials. A mixture of leguminous and non-leguminous crop residues enriches the quality of vermicompost.

    There are different species of earthworms viz. Eisenia Foetida (Red earthworm), Eudrilus Eugenia (Nightcrawler), Perionyx Excavatus, etc.

    The red earthworm is preferred because of its high multiplication rate and thereby converts the organic matter into vermicompost within 45-50 days. Since it is a surface feeder it converts organic materials into vermicompost from the top.

    Manufacturing Process

    The first step is to construct a tank preferably with cement in a vacant space in your backyard or farm. You can also create a simple pit. Find below the basics steps to follow in producing vermicompost fertilizer:

    • Initially, you need to gather bio-degradable agro waste.
    • Cut them into small pieces with a hand-operated cutting machine.
    • Allow them for partial decomposition for 10 to 15 days. It will help you in achieving a better activity with earthworms.
    • A Vermicomposting unit should be in a cool, moist, and shady site.
    • Beds of a partially decomposed material of size 6x2x2 feet should be made.
    • Partially decomposed agro-waste material is then arranged in layers at the vermicompost bed.
    • Prepare a 6” layer of partially biodegradable agro-waste at the bottom of the bed.
    • Apply 1 layer of cow dung slurry on it to further decompose the agro-waste for 15 to 20 days.
    • After partial decomposition, cover with cow dung slurry with a 4” layer of Farm Yard Manure.
    • Apply red earthworm (1500-2000) to the upper layer of the bed.
    • Water should be sprinkled with the can immediately after the release of worms.
    • Beds should be kept moist by a sprinkling of water (daily) and by covering with gunny bags/polythene.
    • The bed should be turned once after 30 days for maintaining aeration and for proper decomposition.
    • The compost will get ready in 45-50 days.

    Harvesting Process of Vermicompost Fertilizer Production

    When you get completely decomposed vermicompost you should stop watering. It appears black in color and granular in size.

    Keep over a heap of partially decomposed cow dung so that earthworms could migrate to cow dung from compost.  After two days compost can be separated and sieved for bagging and use.

    Preventive Measures in Vermicompost Fertilizer Production

    • The floor of the unit should be compact to prevent earthworms’ migration into the soil.
    • 15-20 days old cow dung should be used to avoid excess heat.
    • The organic wastes should be free from plastics, chemicals, pesticides, metals, etc.
    • Aeration should be maintained for the proper growth and multiplication of earthworms.
    • Optimum moisture level (30-40 %) should be maintained
    • 18-25o degree Centigrade temperature should be maintained for proper decomposition.

    Market Opportunity for Vermicompost Fertilizer

    Vermicompost fertilizer production business has good sales potential over a range of crops i.e. agricultural, horticultural, ornamental, vegetables, etc.

    A direct sale to end-users includes farmers’ groups and subdivisions in nearby cities and municipalities. Bulk sale to producers and distributors of organic fertilizer that needs vermicompost as one of its primary components.

    High-end market in urban areas due to the popularity of organically grown farm produce among the rich residing in posh villages and other high-end residential areas.

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